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Electrical Machine Design By Mittal Pdf 43


Cleveland-Cliffs MOTOR-MAX high frequency, non-oriented electrical steels (HF NOES) offer a variety of steel grades specifically developed for high frequency motors and generators. Optimized for performance in EV traction motors, aircraft generators and other rotating equipment, MOTOR-MAX steel offers three distinctive insulative coatings for maximum design flexibility. Cleveland-Cliffs is the only U.S.-based producer of HF NOES grade steel like MOTOR-MAX.




electrical machine design by mittal pdf 43



Solid state sensors which are also known as silicon sensors are designed using tiny sensors that represent an array of pixels. There are four kinds of solid state sensors comprising capacitive, thermal, electric field, and piezoelectric [101]. By far, the most common is the capacitive type. A capacitive sensor consists of two plates. One plate includes a two-dimensional array of capacitors placed underneath the finger sensing surface, and the other plate is the skin of the finger. Capacitances with varying magnitudes are created depending on the distance between the two plates as shown by the vertical double-headed arrow in Figure 5(b). Hence, ridges and valleys can be distinguished with regard to the different capacitance values [104]. Solid state sensors are able to solve the problems associated with optical sensors such as smaller footprint and adjustable electrical parameters to address a dry or wet fingerprint image. In addition, these sensors cannot be duped easily by a copied or fake fingerprint image since a three-dimensional finger surface is sensed based on the distance measurement. In spite of the advantages, solid state sensors are sensitive to electrostatic discharges (ESD). Moreover, white blobs are noticeable in the fingerprint image after countless usage of the sensor [105]. Furthermore, frequent cleaning is required to obtain a good and clean fingerprint image.


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